Volume 3, Issue 1 (2-2021)                   IJMCL 2021, 3(1): 14-28 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ojagh A, Aghaei N, Naderi A. Construction and Validation of the Scale of Measuring the Social Responsibility of Famous Iranian Athletes. IJMCL. 2021; 3 (1) :14-28
URL: http://ijmcl.com/article-1-92-en.html
Associate Professor Sport Management, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (427 Views)
Background: Addressing the issue of social responsibility is pleasant and valuable for every human being, and this category has found a special place in the context of sports. To date, different forms of this category have emerged, one of which is social responsibility in the individual dimension, which can be addressed to all sections of society.
Objective: Due to the importance of the subject, the purpose of this study was to construct and validate a scale for measuring the social responsibility of famous Iranian athletes.
Methods: The methodology of the present study is descriptive-analytical and based on the purpose of applied studies. The statistical population of the present study consisted of physical education students of Tehran, Beheshti, Modares and Kharazmi universities in 3 levels. Structural equations were used to determine the sample size and finally 338 questionnaires were examined. In order to evaluate the validity and reliability of the instrument, indicators such as exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis based on structural equation modeling, divergent and convergent validity and Cronbach’s alpha and combined reliability, each of which performs a specific action.
Results: Moreover, the results of all indicators indicated a favorable evaluation of the instrument.
Conclusion: Therefore, it is suggested that researchers in the field of sports management use this standardized tool to assess the level of responsibility of famous Iranian athletes and provide desirable results.
Full-Text [PDF 387 kb]   (193 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: 1-3. Sport Psychology
Received: 2020/11/15 | Accepted: 2021/01/9 | Published: 2021/02/5

1. Alexander, J. (2013). The case of the green vampire: Eco-celebrity, Twitter and youth engagement. Celebrity studies, 4(3), 353-368. [DOI:10.1080/19392397.2013.831625]
2. Armstrong, C. G., Butryn, T. M., Andrews, V. L., & Masucci, M. A. (2018). Athlete activism and corporate social responsibility: Critical lessons from sport industry professionals. Sport Management Education Journal, 12(2), 110-113. [DOI:10.1123/smej.2017-0032]
3. Bardocz-Bencsik, M., Begović, M., & Dóczi, T. (2019). Star athlete ambassadors of sport for development and peace. Celebrity Studies, 1-16. [DOI:10.1080/19392397.2019.1639525]
4. Bennett, W. L., Segerberg, A., & Walker, S. (2014). Organization in the crowd: peer production in large-scale networked protests. Information, Communication & Society, 17(2), 232-260. [DOI:10.1080/1369118X.2013.870379]
5. Boxill, J. (2003). The ethics of competition. Publisher: Black well, First Edition.
6. Boykoff, M. T., & Goodman, M. K. (2009). Conspicuous redemption? Reflections on the promises and perils of the 'celebritization'of climate change. Geoforum, 40(3), 395-406. [DOI:10.1016/j.geoforum.2008.04.006]
7. Campbell, J. L. (2007). Why would corporations behave in socially responsible ways? An institutional theory of corporate social responsibility. Academy of management Review, 32(3), 946-967. [DOI:10.5465/amr.2007.25275684]
8. Carroll, A. B. (1991). The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Business horizons, 34(4), 39-48. [DOI:10.1016/0007-6813(91)90005-G]
9. Cortsen, K. (2013). Annika Sörenstam-a hybrid personal sports brand. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal. [DOI:10.1108/20426781311316898]
10. Darnell, S. C., Field, R., & Kidd, B. (2019). Corporations, Charities, and Celebrities: SDP in the Era of Corporate Social Responsibility. In The History and Politics of Sport-for-Development (pp. 275-294). Palgrave Macmillan, London. _10 [DOI:10.1057/978-1-137-43944-4]
11. Dunn, C. (2016). Elite footballers as role models: Promoting young women's football participation. Soccer & Society, 17(6), 843-855. [DOI:10.1080/14660970.2015.1100893]
12. Galily, Y. (2019). "Shut up and dribble!"? Athletes activism in the age of twittersphere: The case of LeBron James. Technology in Society, 58, 101109. [DOI:10.1016/j.techsoc.2019.01.002]
13. Hasaan, A., Kerem, K., Biscaia, R., & Agyemang, K. J. (2016). Athlete brand construction: A perspective based on fans' perceptions. Motriz: Revista de Educação Física, 22(3), 144-159. [DOI:10.1590/S1980-6574201600030005]
14. Hamil, S., & Morrow, S. (2011). Corporate social responsibility in the Scottish Premier League: Context and motivation. European Sport Management Quarterly, 11(2), 143-170. [DOI:10.1080/16184742.2011.559136]
15. Hanna, P., Kantenbacher, J., Cohen, S., & Gössling, S. (2018). Role model advocacy for sustainable transport. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 61, 373-382. [DOI:10.1016/j.trd.2017.07.028]
16. He, Y., & Lai, K. K. (2014). The effect of corporate social responsibility on brand loyalty: the mediating role of brand image. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 25(3-4), 249-263. [DOI:10.1080/14783363.2012.661138]
17. Huang, S. J., Hung, W. C., Shyu, M. L., Chang, K. C., & Chen, C. K. (2019). Web-based intervention to promote physical activity in Taiwanese children. Journal of pediatric nursing, 45, e35-e43. [DOI:10.1016/j.pedn.2018.12.016] [PMID]
18. Ibrahim, H., & Almarshed, S. O. (2014). Sporting event as a corporate social responsibility strategy. Procedia Economics and Finance, 11, 3-14. [DOI:10.1016/S2212-5671(14)00170-1]
19. Janssens, J., & Verweel, P. (2014). The significance of sports clubs within multicultural society. On the accumulation of social capital by migrants in culturally "mixed" and "separate" sports clubs. European Journal for Sport and Society, 11(1), 35-58. [DOI:10.1080/16138171.2014.11687932]
20. Keegan, R. J., Harwood, C. G., Spray, C. M., & Lavallee, D. E. (2009). A qualitative investigation exploring the motivational climate in early career sports participants: Coach, parent and peer influences on sport motivation. Psychology of sport and exercise, 10(3), 361-372. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.12.003]
21. Kendellen, K., & Camiré, M. (2017). Examining the life skill development and transfer experiences of former high school athletes. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15(4), 395-408. [DOI:10.1080/1612197X.2015.1114502]
22. Kuchinskaya, O. (2018). Connecting the dots: Public engagement with environmental data. Environmental Communication, 12(4), 495-506. [DOI:10.1080/17524032.2017.1289106]
23. Lee, S. P., Heinze, K., & Lu, L. D. (2018). Warmth, competence, and willingness to donate: how perceptions of partner organizations affect support of corporate social responsibility initiatives in professional sport. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 42(1), 23-48. [DOI:10.1177/0193723517731876]
24. Lii, Y. S., & Lee, M. (2012). Doing right leads to doing well: When the type of CSR and reputation interact to affect consumer evaluations of the firm. Journal of business ethics, 105(1), 69-81. [DOI:10.1007/s10551-011-0948-0]
25. Lin, C. P., Baruch, Y., & Shih, W. C. (2012). Corporate social responsibility and team performance: The mediating role of team efficacy and team self-esteem. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(2), 167-180. [DOI:10.1007/s10551-011-1068-6]
26. Losier, R. V. (2008). An integrative analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology , 11(1), 142-169. [DOI:10.1080/10413209908402956]
27. Mutz, M., & Meier, H. E. (2016). Successful, sexy, popular: Athletic performance and physical attractiveness as determinants of public interest in male and female soccer players. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 51(5), 567-580. [DOI:10.1177/1012690214545900]
28. Parent, B. (2018). Social Responsibility in Sports: Current Landscape. J. Legal Aspects Sport, 28, 126. [DOI:10.18060/22567]
29. Richelieu, A., & Pons, F. (2006). Toronto Maple Leafs vs Football Club Barcelona: how two legendary sports teams built their brand equity. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 7(3). [DOI:10.1108/IJSMS-07-03-2006-B009]
30. Rowe, K., Karg, A., & Sherry, E. (2019). Community-oriented practice: Examining corporate social responsibility and development activities in professional sport. Sport Management Review, 22(3), 363-378. [DOI:10.1016/j.smr.2018.05.001]
31. Salcines, J. L. P., Babiak, K., & Walters, G. (Eds.). (2013). Routledge handbook of sport and corporate social responsibility. Routledge. [DOI:10.4324/9780203747537]
32. Sanderson, J., Frederick, E., & Stocz, M. (2016). When athlete activism clashes with group values: Social identity threat management via social media. Mass Communication and Society, 19(3), 301-322. [DOI:10.1080/15205436.2015.1128549]
33. Scarpato, D., Civero, G., Rusciano, V., & Risitano, M. (2020). Sustainable strategies and corporate social responsibility in the Italian fisheries companies. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 27(6), 2983-2990. [DOI:10.1002/csr.2016]
34. Şerban, C. (2013). Social marketing and privately held companies: the impact of corporate social responsibility activities on Romanian consumers. Journal of food products marketing, 19(2), 81-92. [DOI:10.1080/10454446.2013.761538]
35. Stanger, N., Backhouse, S. H., Jennings, A., & McKenna, J. (2018). Linking motivational climate with moral behavior in youth sport: The role of social support, perspective taking, and moral disengagement. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 7(4), 392. [DOI:10.1037/spy0000122]
36. Thomas, G. (2017). Making sacrifices for the game; a case study of pre-elite athletes (Doctoral dissertation, Lincoln University).
37. Vasilescu, R., Barna, C., Epure, M., & Baicu, C. (2010). Developing university social responsibility: A model for the challenges of the new civil society. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 4177-4182. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.660]
38. Walker, M., & Parent, M. M. (2010). Toward an integrated framework of corporate social responsibility, responsiveness, and citizenship in sport. Sport Management Review, 13(3), 198-213. [DOI:10.1016/j.smr.2010.03.003]
39. Waardenburg, M., & Nagel, S. (2019). Social roles of sport organisations: developments, contexts and challenges. [DOI:10.1080/16138171.2019.1622203]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2021 CC BY-NC 4.0 | International Journal of Motor Control and Learning

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb