Volume 4, Issue 3 (8-2022)                   IJMCL 2022, 4(3): 16-20 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rezai V, Mahdavinejad R, Zolaktaf V. The Effect of Water Walking on Pain Intensity and Motor Function in Men with Non-Specific Chronic Back Pain. IJMCL. 2022; 4 (3) :16-20
URL: http://ijmcl.com/article-1-123-en.html
Department of Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
Abstract:   (259 Views)
Background: Chronic low back pain (LBP) has been one of the most challenging medical problems worldwide which have led to many disabilities and physical problems. The purpose of this study was a comparison of the effect of walking forth, back, and side in the water for 8 weeks on pain intensity, and motor activity in men with chronic low back pain.
Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 30 men with chronic LBP were selected by purposive sampling method and randomly divided into three groups: walking forward, walking backward, and walking sideways. Exercises were performed for 8 weeks with a frequency of 3 sessions per week and each session lasted 30-45 minutes. Pain intensity was measured by the Quebec pain scale and motor function with the temporal rise and move test (TUG) and stork stand test (Stork test).
Results: The results of paired t-test showed that walking in water backward, forwards, and sideways significantly reduced the pain intensity and increase the motor function of the subjects in the post-test compared to the pre-test (p=0.001). Examination of the results of group comparison with one-way analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference between walking methods on subjects' pain intensity and motor function with the stork test (p> 0.05).  
Conclusion: This article showed that 8 weeks of walking exercises in water reduced pain intensity and increased motor function in chronic LBP. It can be suggested that these exercises are effective for the treatment of chronic LBP.
Full-Text [PDF 894 kb]   (27 Downloads)    
  • Walking in the water can reduce pain intensity in low back pain (LBP).
  • Aquatic walking increases motor performance in LBP.
  • Walking backward in water can be better for patients with LBP than other types of walking in water.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: 2-2. Rehabilitation
Received: 2022/04/6 | Accepted: 2022/07/16 | Published: 2022/08/21

1. Airaksinen, O., Brox, J. I., Cedraschi, C., Hildebrandt, J., Klaber-Moffett, J., Kovacs, F., . . . Ursin, H. (2006). European guidelines for the management of chronic nonspecific low back pain. European spine journal, 15(Suppl 2), s192. [DOI:10.1007/s00586-006-1072-1]
2. Ansari, S., Elmieh, A., & Hojjati, Z. (2014). Effects of aquatic exercise training on pain, symptoms, motor performance, and quality of life of older males with knee osteoarthritis. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 2(2), 29-38. [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.aassjournal.2.2.29]
3. Baena-Beato, P. Á., Artero, E. G., Arroyo-Morales, M., Robles-Fuentes, A., Gatto-Cardia, M. C., & Delgado-Fernandez, M. (2014). Aquatic therapy improves pain, disability, quality of life, body composition and fitness in sedentary adults with chronic low back pain. A controlled clinical trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 28(4), 350-360. [DOI:10.1177/0269215513504943]
4. Bicalho, E., Setti, J. A. P., Macagnan, J., Cano, J. L. R., & Manffra, E. F. (2010). Immediate effects of a high-velocity spine manipulation in paraspinal muscles activity of nonspecific chronic low-back pain subjects. Manual therapy, 15(5), 469-475. [DOI:10.1016/j.math.2010.03.012]
5. Brady, B., Redfern, J., Macdougal, G., & Williams, J. (2008). The addition of aquatic therapy to rehabilitation following surgical rotator cuff repair: a feasibility study. Physiotherapy Research International, 13(3), 153-161. [DOI:10.1002/pri.403]
6. Brown, T. R., & Kraft, G. H. (2005). Exercise and rehabilitation for individuals with multiple sclerosis. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics, 16(2), 513-555. [DOI:10.1016/j.pmr.2005.01.005]
7. Chiquoine, J., Martens, E., McCauley, L., & Van Dyke, J. B. (2018). Aquatic therapy. Canine sports medicine and rehabilitation, 208-226. [DOI:10.1002/9781119380627.ch9]
8. Eitner, D. (1982). Exercise in water. Physical Therapy for Sports, ed. Kuprian W, Saunders, Philadelphia, 154-160.
9. Farajzadeh, D., Karimi-Gharigh, S., & Dastmalchi, S. (2017). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its inhibition strategies. Tehran University Medical Journal TUMS Publications, 75(3), 159-171.
10. George, S. Z., Childs, J. D., Teyhen, D. S., Wu, S. S., Wright, A. C., Dugan, J. L., & Robinson, M. E. (2012). Predictors of occurrence and severity of first time low back pain episodes: findings from a military inception cohort. PloS one, 7(2), e30597. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0030597]
11. Hinman, R. S., Heywood, S. E., & Day, A. R. (2007). Aquatic physical therapy for hip and knee osteoarthritis: results of a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy, 87(1), 32-43. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20060006]
12. Hungerford, B. A., Gilleard, W., Moran, M., & Emmerson, C. (2007). Evaluation of the ability of physical therapists to palpate intrapelvic motion with the Stork test on the support side. Physical Therapy, 87(7), 879-887. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20060014]
13. Ilbeigi, S., Nikbin, L., & Afzalpour, M. E. (2014). The effect of six weeks of core stability exercise on pain and trunk muscle endurance in girl students with chronic non-specific low back pain. Journal of Torbat Heydariyeh University of Medical Sciences, 2(2), 5-13.
14. Kargarfard, M., Fayyazi Bordbar, M. R., & Alaei, S. (2012). Effect of eight-week aquatic exercise on life-quality of women over 65. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility, 15(19), 1-9.
15. Lee, J.-H., Ooi, Y., & Nakamura, K. (1995). Measurement of muscle strength of the trunk and the lower extremities in subjects with history of low back pain. Spine, 20(18), 1994-1996. [DOI:10.1097/00007632-199509150-00006]
16. Lee, J.-S., & Kang, S.-J. (2016). The effects of strength exercise and walking on lumbar function, pain level, and body composition in chronic back pain patients. Journal of exercise rehabilitation, 12(5), 463. [DOI:10.12965/jer.1632650.325]
17. Lotfi, H. R., Ibrahimi, A. A., Hashemi, J. S. A. A., & Norouzi, K. (2015). Comparison of two aquatic exercise therapy protocols on disability and pain in the middle-aged men with chronic low back pain. Anesthesiology and pain medicine, 6 (1), 64-73.
18. Mahjur, M., Javaheri, S. A. A. H., Soltani, H., & Yazdi, N. K. (2016). Effects of hydrotherapy on postural control and electromyography parameters in men with chronic non-specific low back pain. International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sciences, 5(5), 153-157.
19. Mitchell, R. I., & Carmen, G. M. (1990). Results of a multicenter trial using an intensive active exercise program for the treatment of acute soft tissue and back injuries. Spine, 15(6), 514-521. [DOI:10.1097/00007632-199006000-00016]
20. Momeni, S., Moghaddasi, A., Farahpour, N., Golpayegani, M., & Darehbidi, M. A. (2012). The effect of exercise therapy on pain, disability and endurance of trunk flexor-extensor muscles in women with chronic idiopathic low back pain. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 15(5).
21. Moon, H. J., Choi, K. H., Kim, D. H., Kim, H. J., Cho, Y. K., Lee, K. H., . . . Choi, Y. J. (2013). Effect of lumbar stabilization and dynamic lumbar strengthening exercises in patients with chronic low back pain. Annals of rehabilitation medicine, 37(1), 110-117. [DOI:10.5535/arm.2013.37.1.110]
22. O'Sullivan, P. (2005). Diagnosis and classification of chronic low back pain disorders: maladaptive movement and motor control impairments as underlying mechanism. Manual therapy, 10(4), 242-255. [DOI:10.1016/j.math.2005.07.001]
23. Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Fakhouri, T. H., Hales, C. M., Fryar, C. D., Li, X., & Freedman, D. S. (2018). Prevalence of obesity among youths by household income and education level of head of household-United States 2011-2014. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 67(6), 186. [DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm6706a3]
24. Panjabi, M. M. (1992). The stabilizing system of the spine. Part II. Neutral zone and instability hypothesis. Journal of spinal disorders, 5, 390-390. [DOI:10.1097/00002517-199212000-00002]
25. Podsiadlo, D., & Richardson, S. (1991). The timed "Up & Go": a test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. Journal of the American geriatrics Society, 39(2), 142-148. [DOI:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1991.tb01616.x]
26. Rutledge, E., Silvers, W. M., Browder, K., & Dolny, D. (2007). Metabolic-cost comparison between submaximal land and aquatic treadmill exercise. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 1(2), 4. [DOI:10.25035/ijare.01.02.04]
27. Sedaghati, P., Sedaghati, N., & Ardjmand, A. (2017). Comparing The Effects Of Hydrotherapy And Extension/Flexion Exercises On Truncal Muscle Strength And Pain Intensity In Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain. Complementary medicine journal of faculty of nursing & midwifery, 6 (4), 1692-1702.
28. Shamshiri, M. (2015). Reviewing the static and dynamic balance in predicting the risk of falls in elderly people in Tehran. Nursing and Midwifery Journal, 12(11), 1045-1053.
29. Wang, T. J., Lee, S. C., Liang, S. Y., Tung, H. H., Wu, S. F. V., & Lin, Y. P. (2011). Comparing the efficacy of aquatic exercises and land‐based exercises for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Journal of clinical nursing, 20(17‐18), 2609-2622. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03675.x]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and Permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

© 2022 CC BY 4.0 | International Journal of Motor Control and Learning

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb