Volume 4, Issue 1 (2-2022)                   IJMCL 2022, 4(1): 44-54 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Farzane S. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Braille Tonik Exercises and Physical Fitness on the Coordination and Memory of Housewives in Mashhad. IJMCL. 2022; 4 (1) :44-54
URL: http://ijmcl.com/article-1-114-en.html
Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (149 Views)
  • One of the Iranian sports that has spread in recent years is the Braille Tonik exercise.
  • Braille Tonik as an individual and group sport, combining the alphabet coding rules with exercise exercises.
  • The purpose of the encryption of sports exercises and performing coordinated movements.
  • Performing Braille Tonik training, especially in groups, increases motor coordination.

Background: Today, a sedentary lifestyle is one of the problems of society, especially among housewives. The aim of the present study was to compare Braille Tonik exercises and physical fitness on coordination and memory of housewives.
Methods: For this purpose, 30 housewives in the age range of 39-19 years were randomly selected and participated in a pre-posttest design of random groups (Braille Tonik exercise and physical fitness group). Both groups practiced for 6 weeks (3 sessions of 60 minutes per week). In the pre-test and post-test, the eye-hand coordination and working memory of the participants were measured by successive tennis ball throwing test and inverted number recall test, respectively.
Results: Despite the increase in coordination between the two groups, there was no significant difference between groups (p = 0.293) and during 6 weeks of training, the average memory in the Braille Tonik group increased.
Conclusion: According to the results, 6 weeks of Braille Tonik training and physical fitness improved eye-hand coordination; However, despite the difference in the amount of cognitive conflict and the type of movements between the two types of exercises, there was no difference in their effects on eye-hand coordination and working memory. 
Full-Text [PDF 333 kb]   (126 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: 1-1. Motor Development
Received: 2021/11/9 | Accepted: 2022/02/18 | Published: 2022/02/28

1. Ahmadzadeh, Z; Abdi Moghadam, S; Farrokhi, A. (2014). The effect of local computer and indigenous games on eye and hand coordination in children aged 7 to 10 years. Journal of Motor Behavior, 15, 61-72.
2. Dehghanizade J, Rahmati M, H. M. (2018). The Effect of Braitonic Exercise On the Motor Skills of Educable Children with Intellectual Disability. Exceptional Children Quarterly, 8(1), 85-96.
3. Ebrahimi S, Rashidy-Pour A, Vafaei A A, Mohammad Akhavan M, H. S. (2010). Influence of basolateral amygdala lesion on the inhibitory effects of propranolol on voluntary exercise- induced enhancement of learning and memory. Koomesh, 11(2), 133-140.
4. Erickson, K I; Hillman, C; Powell, K. E. (2020). ). Physical Activity, Cognition, and Brain Outcomes: A Review of the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 51(6), 1242-1251. [DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001936]
5. Eskandarnejad, M; Rezaei, F. (2018). The effect of aerobic exercise on neural networks of attention and working memory. Khatam Healing Research Journal, 6(2), 31-40. [DOI:10.29252/shefa.6.2.31]
6. Esmaeily, A. (2017). The effect of endurance exercise on memory enhancement. In First National Conference on Sports Science: Sport, Health, Society. Urmia (p. 1).
7. Gathercole, S. E., Alloway, T. P. (2004). working memory and classroom learning. Dyslexia Review. 15. Gathercole, S. E., Alloway, T. P, 15, 4-10.
8. Ghelichpoor, B., Shahbazi, M., & Bagherzadeh, F. (2013). The Effect of Rope Jumping National Plan on Eye- Hand Coordination in Fourth Grade Elementary School Students. Journal OF Developement and Motor Learning, 5(4), 57-69 (In Persian).
9. Ghasemi R, Hadavi F, M. K. (2016). The effect of a "Braille Tonik" course on the happiness of women in Tehran. In Second national conference of the scientific association of sports management (p. 68).
10. Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, B. F. (2019). Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1·9 million participants. Lancet Glob Health, 7(1), 1077-1086. [DOI:10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7]
11. Hejbernia, R; Nazakat Al-Husseini, M; Asfarjani, F; Movahedi, A. (2016). The effect of an aerobic exercise Course on the memory benefit of female students (based on test time). Cognitive Science Quarterly, 18(1), 58-67.
12. Aliniya N, Elmieh A, Fadaie, M. (2020). The effect of combined training and portulaca oleracea supplementation on body composition indices and physical fitness factors in obese females with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Feyz., 24 (1), 72-79.
13. Hendrick P, Milosavljevic S, Hale L, Hurley DA, McDonough S, Ryan B, B. G. (2011). The relationship between physical activity and low back pain outcomes: asystematic review of observational studies. Eur Spine J, 20(3), 464-474. [DOI:10.1007/s00586-010-1616-2]
14. Hoeger, w.w.k., and hoeger, A. A. (2004). Principle and fitness and wellness. In (7thed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomsom Learning (pp. 37-45).
15. Hosseini, H; Samamy, N; Heshmati, S; Mohammadi, A. (2017). The effect of the body vibration program on the strength, flexibility and mobility of elderly men. Journal of Nursing Nursing, Fourth Course, 1, 97-110.
16. Hossein pour, S., Souri, R., Bahrami, S. (2009). The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Types of Training Programs on Musculoskeletal and Cardiovascular Indices in Sedentary Female Students. Journal of Sport Biosciences, 1(2), 164-173.
17. Illario, M; Luca, V D; Cano, A; Tramontano, D. (2020). Go for it! Exercising makes you happy and strong. Transl Med UniSa, 23, 92-105. [DOI:10.37825/2239-9747.1019]
18. Jia M, Dahlman-Wright K, G. J. (2015). Estrogen receptor alpha and beta in health and disease. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab, 29(4), 557-568. [DOI:10.1016/j.beem.2015.04.008]
19. Jokar, S.; Sheikh, M; Baqerzadeh, F. (2018). The effect of a selected physical activity Course on improving motor skills of children with developmental coordination disorder. Journal of Sports Movement Development and Learning, 31(1), 23-36.
20. Kazemi, A; Ghanbarzadeh, M. (2015). Comparison of Different Concurrent Training on Physical Performance and Components of Body Composition in Elderly. JGN, 2(1), 19-28.
21. Khamesan, A.; Koshty Dar, m; Babakhani, M. (2010). The effect of physical activity on long-term memory and short-term memory. Ministry of Science, Research and Technology.
22. Amini, M.; Jaberi Moghadam, AS; Farrokhi, A.; Afshari, J. (2012). The effect of two selected exercise programs on eye and hand coordination of first grade elementary male students. In Conference on the role of exercise in children's health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences.
23. Masoomnejad, F; Hosseini, F. (2017). The effect of a selected tonic exercise Course on the coordination of children with autism. In First National Conference on Sports Science: Sport, Health, Society. Urmia.
24. Mazloumi, S; rahavi, R; Baghiani Moghadam, M; Niknejad, N; DehghaniTafti, A. (2017). Effects of Exercise Training on Housewives Married 20-45 Years Noor City. J Tolooebehdasht Sci, 16(2), 21-33.
25. Mokbarian, M., Golmohammadi, B., Kashani, V. (2015). The effect of a "Braille Tonik" exercise course on the self-efficacy and depression of older women. In 4th national conference of student sports sciences of shahid beheshti university (pp. 1-3).
26. Mousavi, A., Zehtab Najafi, A., Salemi, p. (2014). The effect of regular and irregular physical activity on the mental health and happiness of housewives. In Sixth National Congress of Family Pathology (pp. 551-562).
27. Mujtahedi, H. (2015). Sports tests.
28. Nasrabadi, M; Helmi, F. (2018). The effect of exercise on strengthening students' memory, learning and success. In Third National Conference on New Approaches in Education and Research. Mahmudabad (pp. 1-12).
29. Pickering, sj. (2006). Working Memory and Education. Educational Psychology.
30. Pourjafar, M; Movahedi, Y; Musivand, A. (2019). The effect of rehabilitation game on increasing continuous attention. Research in Rehabilitation Sciences, 3, 6.
31. Rahideh, N; Jalilvand, M. (2015). The effect of two types of exercise program on eye and hand coordination of preschool girls. In The first national conference on the new achievements of physical education and sports. Chabahar International University (pp. 1-9).
32. Amui, M; Farsi, A; Salehi, H. (2015). Evaluation of the effect of a course of skill, strength, and combination exercises on hand stability and eye and hand coordination in children with 14 to 14 years of age. In . The first national conference on new findings in sports science at Tarbiat Dabir Shahid Rajaei University. Tehran (p. 132).
33. Rasooli Qara Shiran, M. (2016). The effect of sex exercises on hand coordination, reaction time, hand-eye coordination, concentration and agility of both hands 11 - 7 years old children. In 9th International Conference on Physical Education and Sports Science. Tehran (p. 1).
34. Ruscheweyh, R; Willemer, Krüger, K; Duning, T; Warnecke, T; Sommer, J; Völker, K; Ho, HV; Mooren, F. (2011). Physical activity and memory functions: An interventional study. Neurobiology of Aging, 32(7), 1304-1319. [DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.08.001]
35. Saadati shamir, A; Kiamanesh, A; Kadivar, P; Hamidi, M. (2010). Working memory explore the relationship between reading performance and academic achievement in language. Journal of Educational Innovations, 35(9), 89-100.
36. Sadeghi, N; Khalaji, H; Nowruzian, M; Mokhtari, P. (2013). The effect of physical activity on memory 70-50 years old women with memory impairment. New Journal of Molecular Cell Biotechnology, 11, 47-54.
37. Sharifi, N., Jalili, L., Najar, S., Yazdizadeh, H., & Haghighizadeh, M. H. (2015). Survey of general health and related factors in menopausal women in Ahvaz city, 2012. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences, 128(21), 59-65.
38. Sjowall1, D; Hertz, M; Klingberg, T. (2017). No Long-Term Effect of Physical Activity Intervention on Working Memory or Arithmetic in Preadolescents. Front. Psychol, 8:1342, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01342. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01342]
39. Taheri, M. (2017). The effect of a growth-based training course on eye and hand coordination in 10 obese children 12 years old. In The Second National Conference on New Sports Research (p. 1).
40. Tavanapour M, R. H. (2015). Effects of a brailletonic exercise on perceptual-motor abilities inelementary female students. In The first national conference on applied sciences of sports and health, shahid madani university of Azerbaijan (pp. 1-5).
41. Van Halewyck, F; Lavrysen, A; Levin, O; Boisgontier, M P; Elliott, D; Helsen, W. F. (2014). Both age and physical activity level impact on eye-hand coordination. Human Movement Science, 36, 80-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2014.05.005 [DOI:10.1016/J.HUMOV.2014.05.005]
42. Wicks, L J; Telford, R M; Cunningham, R B; Semple, S J; Telford, R. D. (2015). Longitudinal patterns of change in eye-hand coordination in children aged 8-16 years. Human Movement Science, 43, 61-66. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2015.07.002]
43. Babakhani, M.; Besharat Far, A; Shukri, R.; Yektamnesh, Z. (2016). The role of physical activity on memory. New Science Spread Publishing, New Scienc, 4-7.
44. Zeidabadi, R; Arab Ameri, A; Naghdi, N; Bolory, B. (2014). The effect of short-term and long-term physical activity with very low intensity on learning and spatial memory of mice. Journal of Motor Behavior, 15, 155-172.
45. Baghiani Moghadam, MH; Mazloumi Mahmoudabadi, SS; Rahavi, R; Niknejad, N. D. T. (2017). The effect of educational program on physical activity of married housewives 45- 20 years old in Noor. Dawn of Health, 21-33. [DOI:10.1080/00221473.1974.10614182]
46. Banaeei A, N. zade M. (2018). The effect of a Braille Tonik training period on coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. In The second national conference on the achievements of sports and health sciences in Ahvaz (pp. 1-11).
47. Bijeh, N; Saeedi, M.; Mohammad Rahimi, Q. (2015). The relationship between aerobic fitness and memory performance and academic achievement: A review of the evidence. Iranian Journal of Ergonomics and Human Factors Engineering Quarterly, 22-34.
48. Borujeni, Sh; Shadmehri, M.; Pishdar, F. (2017). The effect of selected physical activity on hand-eye coordination of non-writing students. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2, 55-71.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and Permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

© 2022 CC BY 4.0 | International Journal of Motor Control and Learning

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb