Volume 4, Issue 1 (2-2022)                   IJMCL 2022, 4(1): 32-43 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ahmadpour A, Heidari F, Van Vugt F. The Effect of Constant or Variable Training Distance on the Generalization of Throwing Skills. IJMCL. 2022; 4 (1) :32-43
URL: http://ijmcl.com/article-1-113-en.html
Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St, Sanandaj, Kurdistan, Iran
Abstract:   (358 Views)
Highlights:
•    Beanbag throwing learning largely generalizes within the range of training, regardless of training distance and practice arrangement. 
•    Generalization can occur beyond the training distance but only within a limited range.

 

Abstract

Background: Generalization is a vital aspect of real-life motor learning. We asked whether in a realistic skill (bean bag throwing) generalization occurs within or beyond the range of trained movements and whether this is different for constant or variable practice.
Methods: what was your outcomes? How you measured them? In two experiments participants threw beanbags at a target at various distances. In the first experiment (n=24), two training groups threw beanbags to a constant near or far target and were examined at an intermediate transfer test. In the second experiment (n=80), participants trained either at a single target (constant), or two targets alternatingly (variable) with targets placed at different distances and they were tested for transfer within and beyond the training range. A control group was included which only performed the transfer tasks.
Results: For the near transfer target, no group outperformed controls (P>.05), whereas all groups except the near constant group (P=.072) performed better than the control group at the intermediate target, and only the far constant training group performed better than controls at the far target (P<.02).
Conclusion: These results suggest that generalization is limited in this task. The generalization that was found depends mostly on the distance between the training and the transfer target, not on whether the transfer target is within the trained movement range. The superiority of the far constant group over other groups further suggests that the farther away the goal was, the greater the need for specialized training.
Full-Text [PDF 483 kb]   (295 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: 1. Motor learning
Received: 2021/11/18 | Accepted: 2022/02/15 | Published: 2022/02/25

References
1. Adams, J. A. (1971). A closed-loop theory of motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 3(2), 111-150. doi: [DOI:10.1080/00222895.1971.10734898]
2. Breslin, G., Hodges, N. J., Kennedy, R., Hanlon, M., & Williams, A. M. (2010). An especial skill: Support for a learned parameters hypothesis. Acta Psychologica, 134(1), 55-60. doi: [DOI:10.1016/j.actpsy.2009.12.004]
3. Breslin, G., Hodges, N. J., Steenson, A., & Williams, A. M. (2012). Constant or variable practice: Recreating the special skill effect. Acta Psychologica, 140(2), 154-157. doi: [DOI:10.1016/j.actpsy.2012.04.002]
4. Chiviacowsky, S., Wulf, G., Laroque de Medeiros, F., Kaefer, A., & Wally, R. (2008). Self-controlled feedback in 10-year-old children: Higher feedback frequencies enhance learning. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79(1), 122-127. doi: [DOI:10.1080/02701367.2008.10599467]
5. Guadagnoli, M. A., & Lee, T. D. (2004). Challenge point: A framework for conceptualizing the effects of various practice conditions in motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior, 36(2), 212-224. doi: [DOI:10.3200/JMBR.36.2.212-224]
6. Heitman, R. J., Pugh, S. F., Kovaleski, J. E., Norell, P. M., & Vicory, J. R. (2005). Effects of specific versus variable practice on the retention and transfer of a continuous motor skill Perceptual and Motor Skills, 100(3c), 1107-1113. doi: https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.100.3c.1107-1113 [DOI:10.2466%2Fpms.100.3c.1107-1113]
7. Henry, F. M., & Rogers, D. E. (1960). Increased response latency for complicated movements and a "memory drum" theory of neuromotor reaction. Research Quarterly, 31(3), 448-458. doi: [DOI:10.1080/10671188.1960.10762052]
8. Keetch, K. M., Schmidt, R. A., Lee, T. D., & Young, D. E. (2005). Especial skills: Their emergence with massive amounts of practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 31(5), 970-978. doi:https://doi.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0096-1523.31.5.970 https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.31.5.970 [DOI:doi/10.1037/0096-1523.31.5.970]
9. Kerr, R., & Booth, B. (1978). Specific and varied practice of motor skill. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 46(2), 395-401. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/003151257804600201 [DOI:10.1177%2F003151257804600201]
10. Mattar, A. A. G., & Ostry, D. J. (2010). Generalization of dynamics learning across changes in movement amplitude. Journal of Neurophysiology, 104(1), 426-438. doi: [DOI:10.1152/jn.00886.2009]
11. Schmidt, R. A. (1975). A schema theory of discrete motor skill learning. Psychological review, 82(4), 225-260. [DOI:10.1037/h0076770]
12. Shea, C. H., & Kohl, R. M. (1990). Specificity and variability of Practice. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 61(2), 169-177. doi: [DOI:10.1080/02701367.1990.10608671]
13. Shea, C. H., & Kohl, R. M. (1991). Composition of practice: Influence on the retention of motor skills. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62(2), 187-195. doi: [DOI:10.1080/02701367.1991.10608709]
14. Shoenfelt, E. L., Snyder, L. A., Maue, A. E., McDowell, C. P., & Woolard, C. D. (2002). Comparison of constant and variable practice conditions on free-throw shooting. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 94, 1113-1123. doi: https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.2002.94.3c.1113 [DOI:10.2466%2Fpms.2002.94.3c.1113]
15. Willey, C. R., & Liu, Z. (2018a). Limited generalization with varied, as compared to specific, practice in short-term motor learning. Acta Psychologica, 182. doi: [DOI:10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.008]
16. Willey, C. R., & Liu, Z. (2018b). Long-term motor learning: Effects of varied and specific practice. Vision Research, 152, 10-18. doi: [DOI:10.1016/j.visres.2017.03.012]
17. Yao, W. X., DeSola, W., & Bi, Z. C. (2009). Variable practice versus constant practice in the acquisition of wheelchair propulsive speeds Perceptual and Motor Skills, 109(1), 133-139. doi: [DOI:10.2466/pms.109.1.133-139]
18. Zetou, E., Papadakis, L., Vernadakis, N., Derri, V., Bebetsos, E., & Filippou, F. (2014). The effect of variable and stable practice on performance and learning the header skill of young athletes in soccer. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 152, 824-829. doi: [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.09.328]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and Permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

© 2022 CC BY 4.0 | International Journal of Motor Control and Learning

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb