Volume 3, Issue 1 (2-2021)                   IJMCL 2021, 3(1): 4-13 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

C. Martinez S, Clark D, Coons J. Peak Muscle Activity During Stance Phase in Women with Patellofemoral Pain versus Without Patellofemoral Pain. IJMCL. 2021; 3 (1) :4-13
URL: http://ijmcl.com/article-1-88-en.html
Ph.D. Student in Health and Human Performance, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN, 37132, USA
Abstract:   (489 Views)
Background: Weak hip external rotation has been speculated to be connected to PFP. However, muscle activity of hip musculature has yet to be investigated during gait with individuals who report PFP.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare peak muscle activity in the hip during stance phase of a 10 meter walk between females with and without patellofemoral pain (PFP).
Methods: Eight females with PFP and eleven females without PFP volunteered for this study. Peak muscle activity of the adductor longus (AL), tensor fascia latae (TFL), gluteus medius (GMED), and gluteus maximas (GMAX) were measured using surface electromyography (EMG). Participants completed 3 trials of a 10m walk while surface EMG was recorded. Muscle co-activation, total time spent in stance, and total walk time were also compared between groups. Four separate independent sample t-test were conducted to compare participants without PFP (n = 11) and participants with PFP (n = 9) for peak muscle activation, muscle co-activation, total stance time, and total walk time.
Results: Peak muscle activity in the AL, TFL, GMED, and GMAX were not significantly different in female participants with and without PFP. Although, peak TFL muscle activity in participants with PFP (M = 0.1664, SD = 0.11360) was higher compared to participants without PFP (M = 0.1016, SD = 0.5937). There were no statistically significant differences in muscle co-activation or 10m walk time between participants with and without PFP. However, time spent in stance time approached statistical significance, p = 0.059.
Conclusion: There are no differences in peak muscle activity in the AL, TFL, GMED, and GMAX between females with and without patellofemoral pain (PFP) during stance phase of a 10m walk.
Full-Text [PDF 317 kb]   (306 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: 2. Motor control
Received: 2020/12/25 | Accepted: 2021/01/20 | Published: 2021/02/5

References
1. Al-Hayani, A. (2009). The functional anatomy of hip abductors. Folia Morphologica, 68(2), 98-103.
2. Arazpour, M., Bahramian, F., Abutorabi, A., Nourbakhsh, S. T., Alidousti, A., & Aslani, H. (2016). The effect of patellofemoral pain syndrome on gait parameters: a literature review. Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery, 4(4), 298.
3. Barton, C. J., Levinger, P., Webster, K. E., & Menz, H. B. (2011). Walking kinematics in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a case-control study. Gait & Posture, 33(2), 286-291. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.11.022] [PMID]
4. Bolgla, L. A., Malone, T. R., Umberger, B. R., & Uhl, T. L. (2008). Hip strength and hip and knee kinematics during stair descent in females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 38(1), 12-18. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2008.2462] [PMID]
5. Boling, M. C., Bolgla, L. A., Mattacola, C. G., Uhl, T. L., & Hosey, R. G. (2006). Outcomes of a weight-bearing rehabilitation program for patients diagnosed with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87(11), 1428-1435. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2006.07.264] [PMID]
6. Boling, M., Padua, D., Marshall, S., Guskiewicz, K., Pyne, S., & Beutler, A. (2010). Gender differences in the incidence and prevalence of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 20(5), 725-730. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00996.x] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Brunet, M. E., Brinker, M. R., Cook, S. D., Christakis, P., Fong, B., Patron, L., & O'Connor, D. P. (2003). Patellar tracking during simulated quadriceps contraction. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®, 414, 266-275. [DOI:10.1097/01.blo.0000079266.91782.11] [PMID]
8. Cichanowski, H. R., Schmitt, J. S., Johnson, R. J., & Neimuth, P. E. (2007). Hip strength in collegiate female athletes with patellofemoral pain. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(8), 1227. [DOI:10.1249/mss.0b013e3180601109] [PMID]
9. Clijsen, R., Fuchs, J., & Taeymans, J. (2014). Effectiveness of exercise therapy in treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Physical Therapy, 94(12), 1697-1708. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20130310] [PMID]
10. Collins, N. J., Crossley, K. M., Darnell, R., & Vicenzino, B. (2010). Predictors of short and long term outcome in patellofemoral pain syndrome: a prospective longitudinal study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 11(1), 11. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-11-11] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Collins, N. J., Vicenzino, B., Van der Heijden, R. A., & Van Middelkoop, M. (2016). Pain during prolonged sitting is a common problem in persons with patellofemoral pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 46(8), 658-663. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2016.6470] [PMID]
12. Cowan, S. M., Bennell, K. L., Crossley, K. M., Hodges, P. W., & McConnell, J. (2002). Physical therapy alters recruitment of the vasti in patellofemoral pain syndrome. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(12), 1879-1885. [DOI:10.1097/00005768-200212000-00004] [PMID]
13. Crossley, K. M., Cowan, S. M., Bennell, K. L., & McConnell, J. (2004). Knee flexion during stair ambulation is altered in individuals with patellofemoral pain. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 22(2), 267-274. [DOI:10.1016/j.orthres.2003.08.014] [PMID]
14. Crossley, K. M., van Middelkoop, M., Callaghan, M. J., Collins, N. J., Rathleff, M. S., & Barton, C. J. (2016). 2016 Patellofemoral pain consensus statement from the 4th International Patellofemoral Pain Research Retreat, Manchester. Part 2: recommended physical interventions (exercise, taping, bracing, foot orthoses and combined interventions). British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(14), 844-852. [DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096268] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Delmore, R. J., Laudner, K. G., & Torry, M. R. (2014). Adductor longus activation during common hip exercises. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 23(2), 79-87. [DOI:10.1123/JSR.2012-0046] [PMID]
16. Evans, P. (1979). The postural function of the iliotibial tract. Annals of the Royal college of Surgeons of England, 61(4), 271.
17. Fox, A., Ferber, R., Saunders, N., Osis, S., & Bonacci, J. (2018). Gait kinematics in individuals with acute and chronic patellofemoral pain. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 21, S15. [DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2018.09.036]
18. Fukuda, T. Y., Melo, W. P., Zaffalon, B. M., Rossetto, F. M., Magalhães, E., Bryk, F. F., & Martin, R. L. (2012). Hip posterolateral musculature strengthening in sedentary women with patellofemoral pain syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial with 1-year follow-up. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 42(10), 823-830. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2012.4184] [PMID]
19. Ferber, R., Bolgla, L., Earl-Boehm, J. E., Emery, C., & Hamstra-Wright, K. (2015). Strengthening of the hip and core versus knee muscles for the treatment of patellofemoral pain: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Journal of Athletic Training, 50(4), 366-377. [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.70] [PMID] [PMCID]
20. Flandry, F., Hunt, J. P., Terry, G. C., & Hughston, J. C. (1991). Analysis of subjective knee complaints using visual analog scales. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 19(2), 112-118. [DOI:10.1177/036354659101900204] [PMID]
21. Fulkerson J. P. (2002). Diagnosis and treatment of patients with patellofemoral pain. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(3), 447-456. [DOI:10.1177/03635465020300032501] [PMID]
22. Hermens, H. J., Freriks, B., & Merletti, R. (2017). SENIAM Project. The SENIAM project.
23. Available at: http://www.seniam.org. Accessed November 1st, 2018.
24. Ireland, M. L., Willson, J. D., Ballantyne, B. T., & Davis, I. M. (2003). Hip strength in females with and without patellofemoral pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 33(11), 671-676. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2003.33.11.671] [PMID]
25. Kaplan, E. B. (1958). apud Maissiat: The iliotibial tract. J Bone Joint Surg [Am], 40, 817-832. [DOI:10.2106/00004623-195840040-00006]
26. Kellish, A. S., Kellish, P., Hakim, A., Miskiel, S., Shahi, A., & Kellish, A. (2020). What is the effect on kinesio taping on pain and gait in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome?. Cureus, 12(7). [DOI:10.7759/cureus.8982] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Lack, S., Neal, B., Silva, D. D. O., & Barton, C. (2018). How to manage patellofemoral pain-Understanding the multifactorial nature and treatment options. Physical Therapy in Sport, 32, 155-166. [DOI:10.1016/j.ptsp.2018.04.010] [PMID]
28. Lankhorst, N. E., Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M., & van Middelkoop, M. (2012). Risk factors for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 42(2), 81-94. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2012.3803] [PMID]
29. Levinger, P., & Gilleard, W. (2007). Tibia and rearfoot motion and ground reaction forces in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome during walking. Gait & Posture, 25(1), 2-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2005.12.015] [PMID]
30. Lewinson, R. T., Wiley, J. P., Worobets, J. T., & Stefanyshyn, D. J. (2013). Development and validation of a computerized visual analog scale for the measurement of pain in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine, 23(5), 392-396. [DOI:10.1097/JSM.0b013e31828b0848] [PMID]
31. Magalhães, E., Fukuda, T. Y., Sacramento, S. N., Forgas, A., Cohen, M., & Abdalla, R. J. (2010). A comparison of hip strength between sedentary females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 40(10), 641-647. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2010.3120] [PMID]
32. Malek, M. M., & Mangine, R. E. (1981). Patellofemoral pain syndromes: a comprehensive and conservative approach. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2(3), 108-116. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.1981.2.3.108] [PMID]
33. Mascal, C. L., Landel, R., & Powers, C. (2003). Management of patellofemoral pain targeting hip, pelvis, and trunk muscle function: 2 case reports. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 33(11), 647-660. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2003.33.11.647] [PMID]
34. Nadeau, S., Gravel, D., Hébert, L. J., Arsenault, A. B., & Lepage, Y. (1997). Gait study of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Gait & Posture, 5(1), 21-27. [DOI:10.1016/S0966-6362(96)01078-8]
35. Neumann, D. A. (2010). Kinesiology of the hip: a focus on muscular actions. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 40(2), 82-94. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2010.3025] [PMID]
36. Niemuth, P. E., Johnson, R. J., Myers, M. J., & Thieman, T. J. (2005). Hip muscle weakness and overuse injuries in recreational runners. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 15(1), 14-21. [DOI:10.1097/00042752-200501000-00004] [PMID]
37. Paoloni, M., Mangone, M., Fratocchi, G., Murgia, M., Saraceni, V. M., & Santilli, V. (2010). Kinematic and kinetic features of normal level walking in patellofemoral pain syndrome: more than a sagittal plane alteration. Journal of Biomechanics, 43(9), 1794-1798. [DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.02.013] [PMID]
38. Piriyaprasarth, P., Morris, M. E., Winter, A., & Bialocerkowski, A. E. (2008). The reliability of knee joint position testing using electrogoniometry. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 9(1), 6. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-9-6] [PMID] [PMCID]
39. Powers, C. M. (2003). The influence of altered lower-extremity kinematics on patellofemoral joint dysfunction: a theoretical perspective. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 33(11), 639-646. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2003.33.11.639] [PMID]
40. Powers, C. M., Heino, J. G., Rao, S., & Perry, J. (1999). The influence of patellofemoral pain on lower limb loading during gait. Clinical Biomechanics, 14(10), 722-728. [DOI:10.1016/S0268-0033(99)00019-4]
41. Powers, C. M., Landel, R., & Perry, J. (1996). Timing and intensity of vastus muscle activity during functional activities in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain. Physical Therapy, 76(9), 946-955. [DOI:10.1093/ptj/76.9.946] [PMID]
42. Robinson, R. L., & Nee, R. J. (2007). Analysis of hip strength in females seeking physical therapy treatment for unilateral patellofemoral pain syndrome. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 37(5), 232-238. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2007.2439] [PMID]
43. Rudolph, K. S., Axe, M. J., & Snyder-Mackler, L. (2000). Dynamic stability after ACL injury: who can hop?. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 8(5), 262-269. [DOI:10.1007/s001670000130] [PMID]
44. Salsich, G. B., & Perman, W. H. (2007). Patellofemoral joint contact area is influenced by tibiofemoral rotation alignment in individuals who have patellofemoral pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 37(9), 521-528. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2007.37.9.521] [PMID]
45. Sommer, H. M. (1988). Patellar chondropathy and apicitis, and muscle imbalances of the lower extremities in competitive sports. Sports Medicine, 5(6), 386-394. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-198805060-00004] [PMID]
46. Souza, R. B., & Powers, C. M. (2009). Differences in hip kinematics, muscle strength, and muscle activation between subjects with and without patellofemoral pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 39(1), 12-19. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2009.2885] [PMID]
47. Taunton, J. E., Ryan, M. B., Clement, D. B., McKenzie, D. C., Lloyd-Smith, D. R., & Zumbo, B. D. (2002). A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(2), 95-101. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.36.2.95] [PMID] [PMCID]
48. Thijs, Y., Van Tiggelen, D., Roosen, P., De Clercq, D., & Witvrouw, E. (2007). A prospective study on gait-related intrinsic risk factors for patellofemoral pain. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine, 17(6), 437-445. [DOI:10.1097/JSM.0b013e31815ac44f] [PMID]
49. Tiberio, D. (1987). The effect of excessive subtalar joint pronation on patellofemoral mechanics: a theoretical model. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports physical Therapy, 9(4), 160-165. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.1987.9.4.160] [PMID]
50. Willson, J. D., & Davis, I. S. (2008). Lower extremity mechanics of females with and without patellofemoral pain across activities with progressively greater task demands. Clinical Biomechanics, 23(2), 203-211. [DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2007.08.025] [PMID]
51. Willson, J. D., Sharpee, R., Meardon, S. A., & Kernozek, T. W. (2014). Effects of step length on patellofemoral joint stress in female runners with and without patellofemoral pain. Clinical Biomechanics, 29(3), 243-247. [DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2013.12.016] [PMID]
52. Willson, J. D., Kernozek, T. W., Arndt, R. L., Reznichek, D. A., & Straker, J. S. (2011). Gluteal muscle activation during running in females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome. Clinical Biomechanics, 26(7), 735-740. [DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2011.02.012] [PMID]
53. Wilson, N. A., Press, J. M., Koh, J. L., Hendrix, R. W., & Zhang, L. Q. (2009). In vivo noninvasive evaluation of abnormal patellar tracking during squatting in patients with patellofemoral pain. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American volume., 91(3), 558. [DOI:10.2106/JBJS.G.00572] [PMID] [PMCID]
54. Winchester, P. K., Carollo, J. J., & Wrobbel, J. M. (1996). Reliability of gait temporal distance measures in normal subjects with and without EMG electrodes. Gait & Posture, 4(1), 21-25. [DOI:10.1016/0966-6362(95)01032-7]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2021 CC BY-NC 4.0 | International Journal of Motor Control and Learning

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb