Volume 2, Issue 2 (5-2019)                   IJMCL 2019, 2(2): 42-53 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Amoorezaie P, Arabameri E, Tahmasebi Boroujeni S. Contributions of External Attentional Focus, Enhanced Expectancies and Autonomy Support to Enhance Learning Skills of Throwing Darts. IJMCL. 2019; 2 (2) :42-53
URL: http://ijmcl.com/article-1-57-en.html
Master of Motor Behavior University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (447 Views)
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of the combination of attention (external focus) and internal motivation (autonomy support and enhanced expectancies) on learning the skill of throwing darts.
Methods: For this purpose, 60 women participated in the study. our study included 4 groups: a) autonomy support - external focus (AS-EF); b) enhanced expectancies - external focus (EE-EF); C) enhanced expectancies - autonomy support (EE-AS); and d) enhanced expectancies - autonomy support - external focus (EE-AS-EF). Participants were asked to throw darts at a target with their non-dominant arm. In the EE conditions, they received (false) positive social-comparative feedback. In the AS conditions, they were allowed to throw 5 of 10 trials in each block with their dominant arm chosen by them. In the EF conditions, participants were asked to focus on the target. on the post-test after the end of the training period and retention and transfer test 24 hours after practice, the AS-EE-EF group had the highest accuracy scores and outperformed all other groups.
Results: The results of the between-group comparison for throwing accuracy showed that the EE-AS-EF group was a significant difference compared to the other groups.
Conclusions: The findings provide evidence that enhanced expectancies, autonomy support, and an external focus can contribute in an additive style to optimize motor performance and learning.
Full-Text [PDF 427 kb]   (123 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: 1. Motor learning
Received: 2018/12/8 | Accepted: 2019/02/6 | Published: 2019/05/11

References
1. Abdar, M. E., Zarghami, M., & Varzaneh, A. G. (2016). Differences related to the distance effects of external focus of attention on static balance of the patients with multiple sclerosis motor behavior(16), 218-205.
2. Abdollahipour, R., Nieto, M. P., Psotta, R., & Wulf, G. (2017). External focus of attention and autonomy support have additive benefits for motor performance in children. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.05.004]
3. Ahmad, A. P., & Agah, M. H. (2001). Investigation Reliability and Validity of Edinburgh Handwriting Questionnaire in Iran.
4. Ávila, L. T., Chiviacowsky, S., Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2012). Positive social-comparative feedback enhances motor learning in children. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(6), 849-853. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.07.001]
5. Badami, R., VaezMousavi, M., Wulf, G., & Namazizadeh, M. (2011). Feedback after good versus poor trials affects intrinsic motivation. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 82(2), 360-364. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.2011.10599765]
6. Badami, R., VaezMousavi, M., Wulf, G., & Namazizadeh, M. (2012). Feedback about more accurate versus less accurate trials: Differential effects on self-confidence and activation. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83(2), 196-203. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.2012.10599850]
7. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191. [DOI:10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191]
8. Borhani, H., Mohammadzadeh, H., & SadatHosseini, F. (2006). The Effect of Focus of Attention and Frequency of Feedback on Acquisition and Retention of Dart Throwing Skills. (10), 76-57.
9. Chiviacowsky, S. (2014). Self-controlled practice: Autonomy protects perceptions of competence and enhances motor learning. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(5), 505-510. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.05.003]
10. Chiviacowsky, S., & Harter, N. M. (2015). Perceptions of competence and motor learning: performance criterion resulting in low success experience degrades learning. Brazilian Journal of Motor Behavior, 9(1). [DOI:10.20338/bjmb.v9i1.82]
11. Chiviacowsky, S., & Wulf, G. (2007). Feedback after good trials enhances learning. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78(2), 40-47. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.2007.10599402]
12. Chiviacowsky, S., Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2012). Self-controlled learning: the importance of protecting perceptions of competence. Frontiers in psychology, 3, 458. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00458]
13. Clark, S. E., & Ste-Marie, D. M. (2007). The impact of self-as-a-model interventions on children's self-regulation of learning and swimming performance. Journal of sports sciences, 25(5), 577-586. [DOI:10.1080/02640410600947090]
14. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The" what" and" why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological inquiry, 11(4), 227-268. [DOI:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01]
15. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 49(3), 182. [DOI:10.1037/a0012801]
16. Hartman, J. M. (2007). Self-controlled use of a perceived physical assistance device during a balancing task. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 104(3), 1005-1016. [DOI:10.2466/pms.104.3.1005-1016]
17. Hooyman, A., Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2014). Impacts of autonomy-supportive versus controlling instructional language on motor learning. Human Movement Science, 36, 190-198. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2014.04.005]
18. Janelle, C. M., Barba, D. A., Frehlich, S. G., Tennant, L. K., & Cauraugh, J. H. (1997). Maximizing performance feedback effectiveness through videotape replay and a self-controlled learning environment. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 68(4), 269-279. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.1997.10608008]
19. Karsh, N., & Eitam, B. (2015). I control therefore I do: Judgments of agency influence action selection. Cognition, 138, 122-131. [DOI:10.1016/j.cognition.2015.02.002]
20. Keller, M., Lauber, B., Gottschalk, M., & Taube, W. (2015). Enhanced jump performance when providing augmented feedback compared to an external or internal focus of attention. Journal of sports sciences, 33(10), 1067-1075. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2014.984241]
21. Land, W. M., Frank, C., & Schack, T. (2014). The influence of attentional focus on the development of skill representation in a complex action. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 30-38. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.09.006]
22. Leotti, L. A., & Delgado, M. R. (2011). The inherent reward of choice. Psychological science, 22(10), 1310-1318. [DOI:10.1177/0956797611417005]
23. Lewthwaite, R., Chiviacowsky, S., Drews, R., & Wulf, G. (2015). Choose to move: The motivational impact of autonomy support on motor learning. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 22(5), 1383-1388. [DOI:10.3758/s13423-015-0814-7]
24. Lewthwaite, R., & Wulf, G. (2010). Social-comparative feedback affects motor skill learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(4), 738-749. [DOI:10.1080/17470210903111839]
25. Palmer, K., Chiviacowsky, S., & Wulf, G. (2016). Enhanced expectancies facilitate golf putting. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22, 229-232. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.08.009]
26. Pascua, L. A., Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2015). Additive benefits of external focus and enhanced performance expectancy for motor learning. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(1), 58-66. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2014.922693]
27. Post, P. G., Fairbrother, J. T., Barros, J. A., & Kulpa, J. (2014). Self-Controlled Practice with in a Fixed Time Period Facilitates the Learning of a Basketball Set Shot. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 2(1), 9-15. [DOI:10.1123/jmld.2013-0008]
28. Reeve, J., & Tseng, C.-M. (2011). Cortisol reactivity to a teacher's motivating style: The biology of being controlled versus supporting autonomy. Motivation and Emotion, 35(1), 63-74. [DOI:10.1007/s11031-011-9204-2]
29. Russell, R., Porter, J., & Campbell, O. (2014). An external skill focus is necessary to enhance performance. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 2(2), 37-46. [DOI:10.1123/jmld.2014-0038]
30. Saemi, E., Porter, J. M., Ghotbi-Varzaneh, A., Zarghami, M., & Maleki, F. (2012). Knowledge of results after relatively good trials enhances self-efficacy and motor learning. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(4), 378-382. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.12.008]
31. Saemi, E., Wulf, G., Varzaneh, A. G., & Zarghami, M. (2011). Feedback after good versus poor trials enhances motor learning in children. Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte, 25(4), 673-681. [DOI:10.1590/S1807-55092011000400011]
32. Sanli, E. A., Patterson, J. T., Bray, S. R., & Lee, T. D. (2012). Understanding self-controlled motor learning protocols through the self-determination theory. Frontiers in psychology, 3. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00611]
33. Santrock, J. w. (2006). Educational Psychology
34. TaheriTorbati, H., Bahran, A., Khorami, A., & Shafizadeh, M. (2005). Impact of Different Methods of Error Estimation and Reduced Frequency of Feedback on Error Detection, Performance and Learning of a Complex Motor Task. Motor science and sport, 1(6), 107-123.
35. Trempe, M., Sabourin, M., & Proteau, L. (2012). Success modulates consolidation of a visuomotor adaptation task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38(1), 52. [DOI:10.1037/a0024883]
36. Wulf, G. (2007). Attention and motor skill learning: Human Kinetics.
37. Wulf, G. (2013). Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 years. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6(1), 77-104. [DOI:10.1080/1750984X.2012.723728]
38. Wulf, G., & Adams, N. (2014). Small choices can enhance balance learning. Human Movement Science, 38, 235-240. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2014.10.007]
39. Wulf, G., Chiviacowsky, S., & Cardozo, P. L. (2014). Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning. Human Movement Science, 37, 12-20. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2014.06.004]
40. Wulf, G., Chiviacowsky, S., & Drews, R. (2015). External focus and autonomy support: Two important factors in motor learning have additive benefits. Human Movement Science, 40, 176-184. [DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2014.11.015]
41. Wulf, G., Chiviacowsky, S., & Lewthwaite, R. (2010). Normative feedback effects on learning a timing task. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 81(4), 425-431. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.2010.10599703]
42. Wulf, G., Chiviacowsky, S., & Lewthwaite, R. (2012). Altering mindset can enhance motor learning in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 27(1), 14. [DOI:10.1037/a0025718]
43. Wulf, G., Freitas, H. E., & Tandy, R. D. (2014). Choosing to exercise more: Small choices increase exercise engagement. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(3), 268-271. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.01.007]
44. Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2016). Optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning: The OPTIMAL theory of motor learning. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 23(5), 1382-1414. [DOI:10.3758/s13423-015-0999-9]
45. Wulf, G., McNevin, N., & Shea, C. H. (2001). The automaticity of complex motor skill learning as a function of attentional focus. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A, 54(4), 1143-1154. [DOI:10.1080/713756012]
46. Wulf, G., & Toole, T. (1999). Physical assistance devices in complex motor skill learning: Benefits of a self-controlled practice schedule. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 70(3), 265-272. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.1999.10608045]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


© 2020 All Rights Reserved | International Journal of Motor Control and Learning

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb