Volume 2, Issue 3 (8-2020)                   IJMCL 2020, 2(3): 3-12 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Shahabi Kaseb M R, Duffy L, Mehranian A, Aminaee A. The Effect of Skill Level on Darts Throwers’ Use of Different Mental Skills. IJMCL. 2020; 2 (3) :3-12
URL: http://ijmcl.com/article-1-64-en.html
Assistant Professor in Motor Behavior, Hakim Sabzevari University, Faculty of Sport Science, Sabzevar, Iran
Abstract:   (1116 Views)
Background: In recent years sports psychologists, coaches and athletes have paid a greater focus of attention to mental wellbeing and psychological skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate which psychological skills are important to two levels of skills among Darts players, namely; elite and beginner.
Method: The sample consisted of 24 elite and 24 beginner Darts throwers. In order to gain insight into Darts throwing, beginner Darts players attended a national-championship-simulated competition. Both elite and beginner players also completed the Ottawa Mental Skill Questionnaire.
Results: Independent t-test results showed that there was a significant difference just in basic psychiatric skills between the beginner and elite Darts throwers (p<0.05). Nevertheless, there is no statistically significant difference in Ottawa's mental skills, psychosomatic skills and cognitive skills between beginner and elite Darts throwers (p>0.05).  
Conclusion: Results revealed differences between elite and beginner Darts players in foundation mental skills and commitment and mental practice subscales. Furthermore, results showed that for the commitment skill, elite and beginner Darts throwers were at the highest and lowest level respectively.
Full-Text [PDF 424 kb]   (758 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: 1-3. Sport Psychology
Received: 2020/05/8 | Accepted: 2020/08/18 | Published: 2020/08/21

References
1. Adams, L. B. (1991). A comparative analysis of cognitive differences among female elite and nonelite high school field hockey players and high school physical education class nonathletes. State University of New York.
2. Afsanepurak, S. A., Bahram, A., & Dana Amir, A. J. (2012). The Effect of Self-talk and Mental Imagery on Self-efficacy in Throwing Darts in Adolescents. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 3(3), 594-600.
3. Aghdasi, M., Torabi, F., & Touba, N. (2013). The comparison of the effects of instructional self-talk on girl's learning and performance of dart throwing in late childhood with adolescence. Motor Behavior (Research on Sport Science), 5(12), 83-96 In Persian.
4. Andrew, M., Potgieter, J. C., & Grobbelaar, H. W. (2007). Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that distinguish between rugby :union: players of different participation levels. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation, 29(1), 1-14. [DOI:10.4314/sajrs.v29i1.25951]
5. Burton, D. (1989). Winning isn't everything: Examining the impact of performance goals on collegiate swimmers' cognitions and performance. The Sport Psychologist, 3(2), 105-132. [DOI:10.1123/tsp.3.2.105]
6. Cumming, J., Nordin, S. M., Horton, R., & Reynolds, S. (2006). Examining the direction of imagery and self-talk on dart-throwing performance and self efficacy. The Sport Psychologist, 20(3), 257-274. [DOI:10.1123/tsp.20.3.257]
7. Dahm, S. F., & Rieger, M. (2019). Is imagery better than reality? Performance in imagined dart throwing. Human Movement Science, 66, 38-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2019.03.005 [DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2019.03.005]
8. Durand-Bush, N., Salmela, J. H., & Green-Demers, I. (2001). The Ottawa mental skills assessment tool (OMSAT-3*). The Sport Psychologist, 15(1), 1-19. [DOI:10.1123/tsp.15.1.1]
9. Eklund, R. C. (1996). Preparing to compete: A season-long investigation with collegiate wrestlers. The Sport Psychologist, 10(2), 111-131. [DOI:10.1123/tsp.10.2.111]
10. Eloff, M., Monyeki, M. A., & Grobbelaar, H. W. (2011). A survey of mental skills training among South African field hockey players at tertiary institutions:: sport psychology. African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 17(1), 37-50. [DOI:10.4314/ajpherd.v17i1.65243]
11. Esfahani, N., & GHezelseflo, H. (2013). The comparison of psychological skills of Elite and non-Elite Karate ka and its relation with athletes' performance. Psychological Studies, 9(1), 109-120. In Persian.
12. Grandjean, B. D., Taylor, P. A., & Weiner, J. (2002). Confidence, Concentration, and Competitive Performance of Elite Athletes: A Natural Experiment in Olympic Gymnastics. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 24(3). [DOI:10.1123/jsep.24.3.320]
13. Heydari, A., Soltani, H., & Mohammadi-Nezhad, M. (2018). The effect of Psychological skills training (goal setting, positive selftalk and Imagery) on self-confidence of adolescent volleyball players. Pedagogics, Psychology, Medical-Biological Problems of Physical Training and Sport, 22(4), 189-194. [DOI:10.15561/18189172.2018.0404]
14. Khanjari, Y., Arab Ameri, E., Garooei, R., Motashareei, E., & Hemayattalab, R. (2013). The Effect of a Course of Psychological Skills Training (PST) Program on Selected Mental Skills and the Performance of Teenager Female Taekwondo Athletes of Iranian National Team. JRSM, 3(5), 25-34 In Persian.
15. Krane, V., Williams, J. M., & Williams, J. M. (2014). Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance. Mcgraw-hill Education-Europe.
16. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1985). The application of goal setting to sports. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 7(3), 205-222. [DOI:10.1123/jsp.7.3.205]
17. Low, G. R., & Nelson, D. B. (1994). Good Darts: Improving Your Game with Psychological and Self-mastery Skills. Good Darts Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=DtQ9HQAACAAJ
18. Magnúsdóttir, Í. M. (2017). Athletes mental skills and stress factors: in the preparation of competing at the Olympic Games. Reykjavík University,.
19. Mahoney, M. J., Gabriel, T. J., & Perkins, T. S. (1987). Psychological skills and exceptional athletic performance. The Sport Psychologist, 1(3), 181-199. [DOI:10.1123/tsp.1.3.181]
20. Mirzaee, B., Rahmani-nia, F., & Bordar, F. (2007). Compare the profile of mental skills wrestlers' junior and senior national teams in freestyle and Greco-Roman. Harakat Journal, 34, 62-89 In Persian.
21. Muasya, V., Oloo, J. A., Mustafa, P. H., Kamau, G. G., Munene, D. M., Walingo, M. J., … Rotich, A. K. (2018). Analysis of the Mental Skills Status of Volleyball and Field Hockey Players in National League Clubs in Kenya. Kenyatta University. Retrieved from http://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/19199
22. Orlick, T., & Partington, J. (1988). Mental links to excellence. The Sport Psychologist, 2(2), 105-130. [DOI:10.1123/tsp.2.2.105]
23. Pashabadi, A., Shahbazi, M., Hoseini, S. M., Mokaberian, M., Kashanai, V., & Heidari, A. (2011). The Comparison of mental skills in elite and sub-elite male and female volleyball players. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1538-1540. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.298]
24. Pickering, M. A., Hammermeister, J., Ohlson, C., Holliday, B., & Ulmer, G. (2010). An exploratory investigation of relationships among mental skills and resilience in warrior transition unit cadre members. Military Medicine, 175(4), 213-219. [DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-09-00059]
25. Russell, W. D., Robb, M., & Cox, R. H. (1998). Sex, sport, situation, and competitive state anxiety. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86(3), 816-818. [DOI:10.2466/pms.1998.86.3.816]
26. Shahbazi, M., Tahmasebi Boroujeni, S., & Motasharee, E. (2014). Determination of factorial validity and reliability of person version of test of performance strategies-2 (TOPS-2). Motor Behavior, 6(17), 15-42 In Persian.
27. Sharififar, F., & Vaez Mousavi, M. K. (2007). Psychology mental preparation of athletes admitted to the National Olympic Academy. National Olympic Committee of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 96-100 In Persian.
28. Sotoodeh, M. S., Talebi, R., Hemayattalab, R., & Arabameri, E. (2012). Comparison of selected mental skills between elite and non-elite male and female Taekwondo athletes. World Journal of Sport Sciences, 6(1), 32-38.
29. Straub, W. F. (1989). The effect of three different methods of mental training on dart throwing performance. The Sport Psychologist, 3(2), 133-141. [DOI:10.1123/tsp.3.2.133]
30. Taylor, J. E., & Wilson, G. E. (2005). Applying sport psychology: Four perspectives. Human Kinetics.
31. Vaez Mousavi, M. K., & Mosayebi, F. (2007). Sports Psychology (1st Ed.). Samt Publication.
32. Vazini Taher, A., & Shahbazi, M. (2013). Functional Capacities and Mental Skills Necessary for Expertise in Soccer. Iranian Journal of Health and Physical Activity, 4(1). [DOI:10.22067/ijhpa.v4i1.21172]
33. Weber, E., & Doppelmayr, M. (2016). Kinesthetic motor imagery training modulates frontal midline theta during imagination of a dart throw. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 110, 137-145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2016.11.002 [DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2016.11.002]
34. Weinberg, S. R., & Gould, D. (2007). Foundation of SportandExercisePsychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers. S40.
35. Zareian, M. (2005). Compare the profiles of elite judo men's mental skills in three age categories (adult, youth, and teenager). master thesis. Islamic Azad University of Karaj.
36. Zeidabadi, R., Rezaie, F., & Motashareie, E. (2014). Psychometric properties and normalization of persian version of ottawa mental skills assessment tools (OMSAT-3). Sport Psychology Review, 3(7), 63-82.
37. Zhang, C.-Q., Si, G., Duan, Y., Lyu, Y., Keatley, D. A., & Chan, D. K. C. (2016). The effects of mindfulness training on beginners' skill acquisition in dart throwing: A randomized controlled trial. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22, 279-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.09.005 [DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.09.005.]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and Permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

© 2022 CC BY 4.0 | International Journal of Motor Control and Learning

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb